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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

上证综指下跌6.85%,以科技版块为重点的深证综指下跌8.22%。

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n. 港口,避难所,安息所 v. 安置 ... 于港中,
When you post your résumé to a job board, such as Monster or Indeed, there's a chance your current employer could see it. In fact, Foss says many HR staffers and managers regularly search for their company names within job board submissions specifically to see if their employees are looking for jobs。
Australian and Spanish schools are doing well, however. Each country’s three representatives have risen up the ranking. Sydney’s Macquarie Graduate School of Management is Australia’s top placed institution at 49 and Spain’s IE Business School moved up four places to eighth, the first time since 2012 that the Madrid school is back in the top 10.

The Producer Price Index (PPI), which gauges factory-gate prices and is a major indicator of economic briskness, rose by 6.3% in 2017, compared with a minus 1.4% for 2016, reversing the trend of continual decline since 2012.
7月,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)宣布发现了一颗类地行星,激发了中国人的想象。
凯特 阿普顿

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

股市楼市再现“跷跷板” 部分资金回流一线地产

虽然总统那晚险胜,此次相逢与前两次辩论相比是诚恳且基本上平安无事的,不太可能对选举结果产生多大的影响。
这也是这座大都市连续第8年保持全国最大消费城市地位。
单词charming 联想记忆:

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

编者案:伦敦奥运会开幕在即,让我们来看看本届奥运会都有哪些比赛项目吧,同时在看看的同时也不要忘了学学比赛项目的词汇,一举两得何乐而不为呢?
PPI已连续下降44个月,反映出建房材料和原料的供应过剩,以及重工业的产能过剩。
intimidating

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Johan Pettersson被授予搞笑化学奖,以表彰其揭示了瑞典小城Anderslv居民的头发会变绿的原因,因为这里的水中含铜量太大。
  • 3月全国建材家居景气指数环比升10.39点
  • “纽约人正逐渐意识到,这一漫长的繁荣期已对我们眼中的经典纽约市容造成了破坏,”历史街区保护委员会(Historic Districts Council)的执行董事西蒙·班考夫(Simon Bankoff)说,他同时指出,2015年将是纽约市通过《地标建筑保护法》的50周年。“环顾左右,那些总被我们认为是一成不变的东西,却都在纷纷关门闭户。”
  • 广州:公租房可“柔性退出”
  • 调控满月 54城楼市合计成交创下3个月来新低
  • 上班迟到,休息后又迟回工作岗位表现出来的是一种傲慢、随便的工作态度。 因此,快速或者甚至是稍微提前一点进入工作状态说明你有时间观念,你确实很在乎工作和别人时间。
    8.出租车司机

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 四川建材市场兴起品牌独立店 或成营销新渠道, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

“环京盘”旺销带动周边租房热 租金价格猛涨

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

雷士欲走“家商并举”转型之道 斥1.5亿建新基地拓家用照明

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The indicators included intellectual capital and innovation, technology readiness, important regional cities, healthcare, safety and security, transportation and urban planning. Others were sustainability and the natural environment, culture and lifestyle, economic clout, cost and ease of doing business.
    adj. 全部的,全体的,一切在内的
  • 11月,中国的出口总值增速是预期的2倍多,这增加了中国的贸易顺差。
    ['?nim'pl?im?nt]
    即使从未见过人微笑,盲人也会微笑。
    James Bond Themes 4. "Thunderball" by Tom Jones
    新上榜人物:今年15位新上榜女性包括:韩国总统朴槿惠(排名第11);洛克希德·马丁公司首席执行官玛丽莲·休森(排名第34);首席执行官托里·伯奇(排名第69);Spanx创始人萨拉·布雷克里(排名第90)和百度首席财务官李昕晢(排名第98)。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 聚焦城市抢人大战:“户口空挂”隐忧何解?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 乡村振兴对城市居民是重要利好

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

榜单前十名中的其它外国影片为《变形金刚5:最后的骑士》、《摔跤吧!爸爸》、《加勒比海盗5:死无对证》和《金刚:骷髅岛》。
Also called self-driving cars, autonomous cars have been making the news recently. Chief among them are Google's self-driving cars. Google's driverless cars have traveled over 480,000 kilometers (300,000 mi) with only two accidents, both of which were caused by humans. But self-driving cars aren't new. In fact, their concepts have arguably been around since the days of Leonardo da Vinci, who invented a spring-powered cart with a programmable steering device.
第十步 如果以上几条都做不到——就公告天下说你有反社会人格
公司:建筑公司Project Frog
通用汽车公司(General Motors)帮助改善了大峡谷州的就业前景。今年3月,这家汽车制造商宣布,计划在凤凰城郊区钱德勒建设该公司的第四座信息技术创新中心。通用汽车预计将雇佣1,000名员工,主要包括为这座新中心效力的软件开发人员、数据库管理员和系统分析师。通用汽车公司首席信息官兰迪?莫特(Randy Mott)在新闻稿中宣布了这个举措,他表示,“大凤凰城地区是出色的枢纽,吸引了新兴技术人才——从大学毕业生到职场专业人士。”
Girls Trip
让爱情多姿多彩:荷兰培育出彩虹玫瑰(图)

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 在苹果(Apple)的蒂姆库克(Tim Cook)支持AR后,该技术可能是更大的机遇。苹果最新操作系统及新款手机iPhone X纳入了AR技术。
  • O2O将会是板材行业的翻身机会吗?
  • ['?nik'spektidli]
    'It is most probably from a mine in South Africa known as Premier mine and now as Cullinan, where most of the blue diamonds are from. Probably in the last 30 years,' Mr Lunel said.
  • 辽宁:2020年租赁住房供应占10%和5%以上
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Lufax is the largest, a subsidiary of China’s Ping An Insurance, which is Lufax’s largest shareholder.
    In that meeting, he told Jacobs that such problems would decrease, as China is reforming its management system in science and technology, according to a statement by the association on Friday.
  • 7.无人机
    据公安部介绍,2016年,1576名外国人成为中国永久性居民,较上一年度增长163%。
  • 但是又一次,科比仍然表示自己很健康,自己的投篮很好,之后就将话题转向了关于他的队友和球队赛程上面。
    In addition to a large, educated workforce to choose from, companies are also attracted to Arizona’s pro-business regulatory climate, which ranks No. 13 in the Mercatus Center’s Freedom in the 50 States. The study cites Arizona’s right-to-work law, liability laws and eminent domain reform.
  • 6. The parties are epic – if you have the time
    That Apple could launch a 2,000 yuan ($330) iPhone mini and be competitive with flagship products from Lenovo, Huawei, ZTE and Coolpad.
    本地社交媒体广告,即那些恰好出现在你的Twitter和Facebook信息流之中的广告,在2013年爆炸式增长。2014年,无论你爱也好,恨也罢,这类广告的规模只会变得越来越大。,尽管听起来有点让人毛骨悚然,但特定位置定位技术预计将在来年出现显著改进。Twitter刚刚推出了一项面向特定邮政编码区域发送有偿消息的功能。比如,当你走进一个社区,当地酒吧、干洗店和麦当劳(McDonald's)发布的“推广消息”就会突然闪现在你的Twitter信息流之中。自2011年来,Facebook一直在采用这种“地理围栏”技术。它能够让商家招揽临近的客户,这些客户实际上可能也想获得提供特别优惠和特价商品的广告信息。好处是,你可以获得更多相关的广告和推销信息。缺点同样是,更多的广告。
  • Major American retailers including Wal-Mart, Target (TGT, Fortune 500), and Kmart all opened their stores on Thanksgiving to get a jump on the holiday gift shopping season. Wal-Mart even went as far as to open its stores two hours earlier this year than it did last. But Costco (COST, Fortune 500) refused to join the trend of "Black Friday creep" and kept its doors shut. Chief executive Craig Jelinek thought giving his workers a day off was more important than increasing his company's bottom line.
    addition
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 房住不炒!南京出台企业“禁炒令” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

红木家具“实力”不减 行情持续走低究竟是为何?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

万科改造深圳城中村引争议,租户担心房租飞涨

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

11月份70个大中城市中一线城市房价环比下降

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

竞争加剧传统家具商升级家居商

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • SplashData发布这份榜单是为了鼓励大家使用复杂的密码。摩根·斯兰还说道:“和往常一样,我们还是希望通过了解使用简单密码存在很大风险,大家能设立比较严谨的密码来保护自己,并在不同的网站上使用不同的密码。”
  • Philippa Langley, a member of the Richard III Society who coordinated and helped fund the search, said she hoped a new image would emerge of the king and "the two-dimensional character devised by the Tudors will be no more".
  • 2017年我国防腐涂料总产量将达到600万吨左右

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 昨日,108名表演者身着熊猫服装,穿行在伦敦的街头,向大众宣传这种惹人喜爱却面临灭绝危险的黑白物种。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • It was an incredible achievement for SpaceX. The first stage rocket of one of its Falcon 9 launchers, having successfully lofted cargo to the International Space Station, managed to turn itself around, bleed off the enormous kinetic energy it had acquired while its main engines were burning, fly back down to Earth and land vertically - with balletic precision - on a rather tiny looking robotic barge floating somewhere in the Atlantic.
    However, 2016 saw the rise of Chinese mobile phone-makers. Huawei shipments grew 30.2 percent year on year to 139.3 million units, and the company retained its No. 3 position globally.
    Despite the reported success of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's official visit to Canada back in September, timekeeping needs to be looked at for future trips.
  • Margot Wallstrom

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Remedy: This is another hindsight-based regret that you can’t cure without a time machine. The years, energy and dollars you spent on your degree are sunk costs. You can’t do anything about your past academic track record, but you can identify the areas in which you think you fell short in your college days and figure out how to augment those shortcomings in the present. For example, if you feel you didn’t do enough networking outside of the classroom, you might consider joining an alumni group or make a greater effort to participate in professional associations in your field. If you regret skipping your 8:00 AM managerial accounting class and mourn how useful those concepts would be to you now, check out the continuing ed options at your nearest community college.
  • 珠海房价暴涨让澳门地产业重燃希望:资金望回流
  • 汉达·阿亚里(Henda Ayari)

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 警惕地板企业环保产品不环保
  • Household substance abuse
  • 淘品牌遭遇天花板 传统家具品牌迅速上位
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

土豪袭来! 欧司朗/德豪润达/国星光电大手笔投资

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 专家称城市分化加剧 一线城市房价有望继续上涨
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 广东清远存量房即将进入“网签备案时代”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

约翰奥瑟兹(John Authers)

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

中国的股市能否重回6000点?
Meanwhile, celebrated American rapper Eminem proved to be the comeback king as he picked up the Best Hip Hop gong. The Lose Yourself hitmaker was up against the newer faces of hip hop, including Drake, Future, Kendrick Lamar and Post Malone.
ment补,修-修改
“加之相比创业,高校更注重培养学生的创新意识。这也是大学生创业意向如此低的另一个原因。”
《初来乍到》(Fresh off the Boat),ABC,2月4日播出。这部喜剧是根据大厨与美食、旅游真人秀主持人黄颐铭的回忆录改编的,讲述20世纪90年代中期的佛罗里达,一个华裔美国家庭克服文化冲突,努力适应美国生活的故事。哈德逊·杨(Hudson Yang)饰演迷恋嘻哈乐的11岁男孩艾迪,在《采访》(The Interview)中饰演金正恩的兰道尔·朴(Randall Park)饰演他的父亲,一位郊区牛排餐厅骄傲的店主。
本周一的谷歌首页涂鸦看起来十分意想天开,但关注却是一个非常严肃的问题:净水。该作品出自一名来自纽约长岛的11岁孩子之手,相当不错。
单词recommend 联想记忆:
There are at least 600 island owners in China, Lin Dong, founder of the China Island Owners Association, estimates.
The actress posted on Instagram a seemingly heartfelt missive after the attacks in Nice and Turkey. But she paired it with a photo of her in some skimpy lingerie attempting to look seductive.
Yunge from the Desert

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

家具企业渠道多元化是趋势 电商仍处于烧钱阶段

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 《神奇女侠》
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • However the prolonged period of contraction fits with the overall pattern of the slowing Chinese economy.
  • 新疆公积金个贷为职工节约购房利息逾26亿元
  • This was never more powerful than when he talked publicly for the first time about his sexuality.
  • 房价上调近10% 燕郊楼市能否坐稳万元关口
  • To ease women's concerns following the implementation of the two-child policy, the country should put in place more explicit regulations banning discrimination against women. These could include requiring companies to have a certain percentage of female employees, as well as tax cuts or other preferential measures to encourage employers to effectively implement the extended maternity leave regulation for female workers.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 房贷利息抵税能省多少?月入1.4万的房奴算了一笔账
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 法学、工学、医学的毕业生签约月薪较高,平均值分别是5545元、4512元、4500元,同去年相比略有下降,而教育学、农学的毕业生签约月薪偏低,分别为3258元和3184元。
  • as加强+soc社会+ion→社团;联合

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

福建陶瓷畅销海外 前11月出口创汇134.8亿元

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